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DR. S .R .RANGANATHAN

FATHER OF INDIAN LIBRARY SCIENCE



  1. NAME: Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan

  2. LIFE SPAN: 1892-1972.

    Ranganathan Was Born in 1892 in Shiyali in The Tanjur district Of Madras State.
    His Family Belonged to the Brahman Community.

  3. QUALIFICATION: M.A.(maths) -- then Librarianship.

    He received his B.A. in 1913, and an M.A. in Mathematics in 1916.

    In 1917,he received a Professional Teaching Certificate from Teacher's College, Saidapet, Madras.
    He then taught Physics and Mathematics at Government College ,Mangalore; Government College, Coimbatore;
    and Presidency College, Madras.

    Then he studied at the School of Librarianship, University College, London , under W.C. Berwick Sayers,
    the chief librarian of the Croydon Public Library.

    Ranganathan received an honors certificate from the school at the end of his stay.

  4. WIFE: Sarada Ranganathan

    Sarada Ranganathan Endowment trust for Library Science, founded by Ranganathan in honor of his wife.
    The purpose of the endowment is to promote and publish research in library science.

  5. CONTRIBUTION:

    THE FIVE LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE,
    These were published in 1931.
    The five laws are the following simple statements:
    1) Books Are For Use,
    2) Every Reader His Book,
    3) Every Book Its Reader,
    4) Save The Time Of The Reader,
    5) A Library Is A Growing Organism

    COLON CLASSIFICATION
    Not until 1933 did Ranganathan publish his first major work on his new classification system ,The Colon Classification.

    Its basic principles,however, require the analysis of a subject to determine its various
    aspects, called facets, and the synthesis of a class number from the numbers assigned in published schedules to different facets.
    Thus, Colon Classtilcation is known as an analytico -synthetic classification system.

    Ranganathan was the first to fully explicate facet theory,and his work has had a major impact on modern classification schemes

    CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE CODE
    In 1934, just a year after The Colon Classification came out, Ranganathan published another important work, the Classified Catalogue Code.

    Ranganathan maintained, however,that a catalog should consist of two components:-
    One part should be classified by subject, reflecting the library's classification system, with class number entries.
    The other should be a dictionary catalog, including author,title, series, and similar identifiers, as well as alphabetized subject entries.

    The function of a catalog is to itemize works so they can be found by author, title, series, and so forth. It must also allow readers to review the selection of works on a given subject

    CHAIN INDEXING
    To determine subject entries for the dictionary catalog, Ranganathan devised an ingeniously Simple method called chain indexing.

    This method simply uses each facet of a subject, together with its immediately preceding facets, as an index entry.
    Thus, all important aspects of the subject, from the most general to the most specific, are automatically covered.
    Chain indexing can be adapted to other classification systems as well.


  6. PUBLICATIONS:
    Although Ranganathan's works on classification and cataloging are his best recognized contributions, he published over 50 books and 1,000 papers on all aspects .

    In 1935, he published the first edition of his influential book, LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION , in which he broke down library Work into approximately 1,000 component jobs
    By precisely identifying many different library functions, he was able to simplify and streamline library routine.

    He also wrote extensively on the physical layout and furnishings of libraries.

    In addition, he founded and edited three periodicals:
    1. The Indian Library Association Annals, Bulletin,and Granthalaya(the Hindi component of the journal);
    2. The Annals of Library Science;
    3. &
    4. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation


  7. CONTRIBUTIONS TO LIBRARY SCIENCE EDUCATION
    Ranganathan worked tirelessly to professionalize library education in India.
    One of his first achievements,in 1929, was to found a library school that was later incorporated into the University of Madras.
    He also instituted a master of library science degree in 1948 and a doctoral program in 1950, both at the University of Delhi.
    These were the first higher degree programs in library science offered in India, and probably in any of the Commonwealth countries.
    Ranganathan greatly influenced the curricula and textbooks for such courses.

    Ranganathan's crowning accomplishment in library education was to found the Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore, under the auspices of the Indian Statistical Institute.
    The center, is devoted solely to research and advanced training in documentation and information science.

    Ever since his return from England, Ranganathan had hoped to establish a Western-style network of public libraries througho ut India.
    His first step toward achieving this end was to form the Madras Library Association in 1928, to promote development of public libraries in the state of Madras.

    He also drafted specific legislation to extend the public library system beyond the state of Madras into other areas of India.

    In 1950, he published an influential work detailing plans for a system of national, state, university,public, and school libraries for the entire country.


  8. COMMITMENT TO LIBRARY SCIENCE

    Ranganathan's activity level throughout his lifetime reflects a total, selfless commitment to library science.

    During his 20 years of service as librarian of the University of Madras,he took no leave.
    He worked even on his wedding day, returning to the library shortly after the ceremony.

    When he retired from the Madras University library, it was only to accept a series of appointments at other Indian universities and to step up his involvement in international activities.

    He remained actively engaged in research until his death in 1972 at the age of 80.

    Although Ranganathan is widely acknowledged as the father of library science in India,his activities extended well beyond his country's borders.

    In addition to attending many international library and information science conferences, he traveled extensively on lecture tours to library science schools throughout the US and Europe.

    He also participated in the activities of such international organizations as UNESCO, the International Federation of Library Associations, and the International Standards Organization.

    He played a key role in setting policy for the United Nations Library and he devoted much effort to international Standardization of documentation

    He also involved himself in every aspect of library work in India.
    In the course of his career, he was a member or chairman of more than 25 committees which ad- dressed such issues as library administration, education of librarians,and library legislation.


  9. CAREER

    Ranganathan held several important offices in India during his long career.

    He served as president of the Indian Library Association from 1944 to 1953 and
    as president of the Madras Library Association from 1958 to 1967.
    He also served as vice president of the Governing Council of the Indian Standards Institute from 1965 to 1972.

    Although Ranganathan is widely acknowledged as the father of library science in India,his activities Extended well beyond his country's borders.
    In addition to attending many international library and information science conferences, he traveled extensively on lecture tours to library science schools throughout the US and Europe.

    He also participated in the activities of such international organizations as UNESCO, the International Federation of Library Associations, and the International Standards Organization.

    He played a key role in setting policy for the United Nations Library and he devoted much effort to international Standardization of documentation.
    He was particularly active in the International Federation for Documentation (FID).

    He founded the FI committee on classification theory, served as vice president of the FID coun cil, and was elected an honorary member of FID.

    He also became honorary chairman of the FID committee on classification research

  10. HONOURS RECEIVED

    Ranganathan's contributions were acknowledged 1964, he was named honorary president of the Second International Conference on Classification Research, Held in Elsinore, Denmark.

    He also received a number of other high honors.

    In 1935 and 1957, respectively,the Indian government bestowed on him the honorific title Rao Sahib and the public service award Padmashri.
    In 1948, he received an honorary doctorate of literature from the University of Delhi.
    In 1964, he received the same degree from the University of Pittsburgh.
    In 1965, he was made a national research professor by the Indian government, and in 1970, he received the Margaret Mann Citation in Cataloging and Classification of the American Library Association(ALA). In 1965,
    and in 1967, in honor of his seventy-first birthday, his colleagues published published two volumes of aestschrt dedicated to him.

    After his death, the FID,in 1976, established the Ranganathan award in his memory. This certificate of merit is awarded biennially for a recent outstanding contribution in the field of classification,


  11. LIFE STYLE

    Besides his great capacity for work, Ranganathan was renowned for his abstemious life-style.

    In spite of the good salary he earned, he adopted a Gandhi-like simplicity in diet and dress. He ate only lightly, shunned coffee and tea, and wore plain homespun garments.

    He usually walked barefoot to the library and worked there barefoot, saying that the library was his home, and no one wears shoes in his own home.

    As for his real home, it was sparsely furnished and lacked electricity, although he could have easily afforded these amenities.

    The money he saved through years of frugal living, he gave away twice:-
    In 1925 to endow a mathematics fellowship at Madras Christian College in honor of his mathematics professor, Edward B.Ross, and
    In 1956 to endow the Sarada Ranganathan chair of library science at the University of Madras in honor of his wife.


    This self-abnegation and devotion to work were grounded in a deep spirituality.

    As T.R. Seshadri,an associate of Ranganathan, writes, "Ranganathan was born and brought up at a time when spirituality and religion still continued to be the mainsprings of Iife."

    Some of his followers viewed him as a yogi.
    He concentrated his whole body, mind, and soul on the discipline of library science, so they felt he had embraced it as a path to spiritual perfection.