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LAWS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

The father of library science , Dr. S.R.Ranganathan , enunciated the basic Five Laws of Library Science in 1928.
They constitute the basic philosophy of Library Science and Librarianship.
They constitute a yardstick for testing the validity of everything done in relation to library.

The Five Laws are:-
  1. BOOKS ARE FOR USE.

  2. EVERY READER HIS/HER BOOK.

  3. EVERY BOOK ITS READER.

  4. SAVE THE TIME OF READER.

  5. LIBRARY IS A GROWING ORGANISM.


BOOKS ARE FOR USE


Books are meant for use . Thus ,to maximize the use of books following points are to be considered:-
  1. LOCATION OF LIBRARY
    While choosing the location of Library keep in mind that it should be centrally located ,where it will easily catch the attention of public.
  2. LIBRARY HOURS
    Library hours should be convenient to users.
  3. LIBRARY FURNITURE,EQUIPMENT AND BUILDINGS
    Exterior of building should be inviting and interior attractive .
    Furniture should be comfortable.
  4. LIBRARY STAFF
    First Law calls for credibility of staff, both in respect of their knowledgeability & their personal attitude to readers.

EVERY READER HIS/HER BOOK.


This law revolutionised the concept "BOOKS FOR CHOSEN FEW"

"BOOKS ARE FOR ALL" is a variant of second law.

The Second Law stands for mandatory provision of Library service to each according to his/her needs.

Second Law enjoins certain obligations on state,library authority,staff & readers.
  1. OBLIGATION OF STATE
    TO develop & maintain a Library system that is capable of providing adequate Library service to all the people.
  2. OBLIGATION OF LIBRARY AUTHORIT Y
    Library Authority's obligation in respect of
    a)Choice of books
    b)Choice of staff
  3. OBLIGATION OF STAFF
    Staff should be devoted.
    It should provide Reference service to readers.
  4. OBLIGATION OF READERS
    THEY should follow the rules of Library.

EVERY BOOK ITS READER.


The means used to satisfy the Third Law in Libraries is
  1. OPEN ACCESS SYSTEM
    By open access is meant the opportunity to see and examine the book's collection with as much freedom as in one's own Private Library.
  2. SHELF ARRANGEMENT
    Books should be arranged according to their subject matter.
    a well articulated classified arrangement of books on subject basis is necessary for Third law.
  3. RECENT ADDITIONS SHELF
    'Recency' is also important in securing attention of visitors of Library.
    There should be a separate 'Recent Additions Shelf' very near the entrance.
  4. EASY ACCESSIBILITY
    Books within the reach of a reader of average height.
    Top-most shelf of a book rack should be within the easy reach of a man of average height.
  5. CATALOGUE
    Catalogue is of immense help for Third Law.
    Series-entry(entry of book under series to which it belong) and Subject cross-reference entry(having subject as heading) are specially conducive to fulfillment of Third Law.
  6. REFERENCE SERVICE
    Third Law always require the provision of human beings as "canvassing agents" for books.
    Certain members of staff should be set apart solely to assist the reader in use of catalogue and in the choice of books.
  7. PUBLICITY
    Well considered publicity is necessary for a library,so that public may know its existence and of varied service it offers.
  8. EXTENSION SERVICES
    Objective is to turn the library into a social centre whose function is encouragement of reading.

SAVE THE TIME OF READER.


  1. OPEN ACCESS
    Time is saved if a person searches the book itself.
  2. CLASSIFIED ARRANGEMENT
    Books on shelves should be arranged according to subjects.
    Such arrangement makes it easy to find the required books easily
    This way you also come across other books related to your topic .
  3. STACK ROOM GUIDES
    Guides should be provided in stack helping in finding books
    Books should be tagged.
  4. CATALOGUE ENTRY
    There should be Subject,Title and Keyword entries
    Cross-reference entries should be given.
  5. AUTOMATION OF LIBRARIES
    It is very helpful in saving user's time

LIBRARY IS A GROWING ORGANISM


According to this Law, Library is regarded as a living being.
Just as a person has two types of growth:- a)Child growth-physical development
b)Adult growth-mental development (wisdom).

Similarly,Library has two types of growth:- a)Child growth-in terms of increase in reading material & staff.
b)Adult growth-in terms of growth in readers.

The Fifth Law states the basic components of a library are:-
1)Book stock 2)Staff 3)Readers 4)Physical plant.
  1. BOOK STOCK

    a)Size of stack room
    b)Size of catalogue cabinet.
    c)Number of racks
    d)Catalogue room

  2. READERS
    a)More reading space .
    b)More services.

  3. STAFF
    a)More staff for new services.
    b)Intense Reference service.
    c)Increase in administrative service.
    d)New Information services.

  4. PHYSICAL PLANT
    By Physical plant it means Library building,furniture & equipme nts.
    a)Library building with modular approach.
    b)Furniture keeping in mind future increase of users.